New understanding of the ways in which higher education contributes to economic and human development has strengthened the justification for investment in higher education in lower-income contexts in recent years. This, in turn, has prompted a wave of reform and revitalisation efforts within African higher education systems.
The role of education as a process for fighting discrimination, promoting social justice and overcoming poverty has been indisputable through focus on marginalization and 'educational poverty' and its implications for well-being and human development. However, growing literature is showing that education is failing the most vulnerable groups, such as girls by falling short on promises of equity and social justice.
Urban violence is an increasingly significant global phenomenon. Over the past few years, a conventional wisdom has emerged within policy and research circles associating it with four key factors: poverty; youthful populations; the failure to consider women’s safety as a specific concern; and the local-level absence of the state. Taken together, these different factors have underpinned a range of policy interventions in a variety of contexts.