Making a living and securing basic necessities in challenging environments. Including issues such as: social protection, climate change, resource scarcity, human capital, disabilities, resilience, and wellbeing.

Kenya, Africa

Principal Investigator: Robert Lloyd Walker. Lead Organisation: University of Oxford

Co-investigator: Sony Pellissery; Grace Bantebya; Lichao Yang; Elaine Chase

A new set of initiatives, called graduation programmes, target poor households with asset transfers and income support for a fixed period. The objective is to graduate poor households out of poverty and support their resilience so they do not fall back into poverty.

Principal investigators: Vanessa Watson. Lead Organisation: University of Cape Town

Co-investigators: Jane Battersby; Susan Marion Parnell; Warren Michael Smit; Jonathan Crush

Principal Investigator: Simon Deakin. Lead Organisation: University of Cambridge

Co-investigator: Shelley Diana Marshall

Photo: Arne Hoel / World Bank cash transfers programme
An increase in the number and scope of conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes as a way to provide households with financial resources to meet subsistence needs while encouraging investment in children's human capital has come as a growing number live in extreme poverty after the recent financial crisis.

Principal Investigator: Michael John Patrick Walton. Lead Organisation: Centre of policy research, India

Co-investigator: Partha Mukhopadhyay

In Indian cities many people live in marginal areas, with insecure housing, and inadequate provision of most public services, such as water and sanitation, electricity, garbage collection and policing.

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