Making a living and securing basic necessities in challenging environments. Including issues such as: social protection, climate change, resource scarcity, human capital, disabilities, resilience, and wellbeing.

The first theme of the research programme is the assembly and analysis of historical evidence from fiscal records on the long-run development of economic inequality.  “Long run” is a relative term, and here it means evidence dating back before the Second World War, and extending where possible back into the nineteenth century.  The time span is determined by the sources used, which are based on taxes on incomes, earnings, wealth and estates.


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